berkaitan dg mata kuliah Proses Produksi with Dr.Eng.Ir. RUDI SUHRADI RACHMAT, M.Eng

Roll forming, sometimes spelled rollforming, is a metal forming process in which sheet metal is progressively shaped through a series of bending operations. The process is performed on a roll forming line in which the sheet metal stock is fed through a series of roll stations. Each station has a roller, referred to as a roller die, positioned on both sides of the sheet. The shape and size of the roller die may be unique to that station, or several identical roller dies may be used in different positions. The roller dies may be above and below the sheet, along the sides, at an angle, etc. As the sheet is forced through the roller dies in each roll station, it plastically deforms and bends. Each roll station performs one stage in the complete bending of the sheet to form the desired part. The roller dies are lubricated to reduce friction between the die and the sheet, thus reducing the tool wear. Also, lubricant can allow for a higher production rate, which will also depend on the material thickness, number of roll stations, and radius of each bend. The roll forming line can also include other sheet metal fabrication operations before or after the roll forming, such as punching or shearing.
Roll Forming Line
Roll Forming Line


The roll forming process can be used to form a sheet into a wide variety of cross-section profiles. An open profile is most common, but a closed tube-like shape can be created as well. Because the final form is achieved through a series of bends, the part does not require a uniform or symmetric cross-section along its length. Roll forming is used to create very long sheet metal parts with typical widths of 1-20 inches and thicknesses of 0.004-0.125 inches. However wider and thicker sheets can be formed, some up to 5 ft. wide and 0.25 inches thick. The roll forming process is capable of producing parts with tolerances as tight as ±0.005 inches. Typical roll formed parts include panels, tracks, shelving, etc. These parts are commonly used in industrial and commercial buildings for roofing, lighting, storage units, and HVAC applications.
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Spinning

Spinning, sometimes called spin forming, is a metal forming process used to form cylindrical parts by rotating a piece of sheet metal while forces are applied to one side. A sheet metal disc is rotated at high speeds while rollers press the sheet against a tool, called a mandrel, to form the shape of the desired part. Spun metal parts have a rotationally symmetric, hollow shape, such as a cylinder, cone, or hemisphere. Examples include cookware, hubcaps, satellite dishes, rocket nose cones, and musical instruments.

Spinning is typically performed on a manual or CNC lathe and requires a blank, mandrel, and roller tool. The blank is the disc-shaped piece of sheet metal that is pre-cut from sheet stock and will be formed into the part. The mandrel is a solid form of the internal shape of the part, against which the blank will be pressed. For more complex parts, such as those with reentrant surfaces, multi-piece mandrels can be used. Because the mandrel does not experience much wear in this process, it can be made from wood or plastic. However, high volume production typically utilizes a metal mandrel. The mandrel and blank are clamped together and secured between the headstock and tailstock of the lathe to be rotated at high speeds by the spindle. While the blank and mandrel rotate, force is applied to the sheet by a tool, causing the sheet to bend and form around the mandrel. The tool may make several passes to complete the shaping of the sheet. This tool is usually a roller wheel attached to a lever. Rollers are available in different diameters and thicknesses and are usually made from steel or brass. The rollers are inexpensive and experience little wear allowing for low volume production of parts.

Spinning Lathe
Spinning Lathe

There are two distinct spinning methods, referred to as conventional spinning and shear spinning. In conventional spinning, the roller tool pushes against the blank until it conforms to the contour of the mandrel. The resulting spun part will have a diameter smaller than the blank, but will maintain a constant thickness. In shear spinning, the roller not only bends the blank against the mandrel, it also applies a downward force while it moves, stretching the material over the mandrel. By doing so, the outer diameter of the spun part will remain equal to the original blank diameter, but the thickness of the part walls will be thinner.

Conventional Spinning vs. Shear Spinning
Conventional Spinning vs. Shear Spinning

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